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My name is Cholpon. I grew up in a small town of Naryn in the south-eastern part of Kyrgyzstan. From the early ages my passion was to travel and discover new places. I enjoyed showing around to my friends and teachers who came from abroad to teach English. Further I entered the University to study linguistics but to connect my life with tourism it was not enough. Therefore I went through special courses of guiding by local mentors in Bishkek who run tourist agencies. This is how I got involved into this world of adventures and new experiences.
Hello dear guests of our country. Let's talk about the industry of Kyrgyzstan. Every tourist is interested to know what countries produce. During your tour in Kyrgyzstan you will have a great opportunity to understand this in detail.
Kyrgyzstan has a significant number of diverse fuel and energy resources. Its involvement in production makes it possible to gradually solve the problems of reducing the import of energy carriers from other countries into the country and increase the efficiency of the fuel and energy complex, which consists of two large sectors: fuel production (coal, oil, gas) and the electric power industry. The fuel and energy complex is an intersectional system for the production of fuel and energy; it includes the extraction, processing, transportation, distribution and use of energy resources. The complex accounts for 19.9% of gross industrial output.
Electric Power industry
Until 1917, the electric power industry in Kyrgyzstan, as a separate industry, almost did not exist. In 1913 – 1914, only 5 small power plants operated with a total capacity of 265 kW, these are: the Kyzyl-Kiya coal field (121 kW) thermal power station, two hydroelectric power stations in the city of Osh (120 kW), the Bishkek diesel power station (16.5 kW), and the Karakol diesel power station (7.5 kW).
In 1929, the Small Alamudun hydroelectric power station (410 kW) was built. Since 1923, electricity has been used for street lighting, and since 1930 it has been used in agriculture. In 1940, the total capacity of Kyrgyzstan’s power plants was 19.6 thousand kW. The amount of generated energy was 51.6 million kWh.
A significant role in the republic’s overall energy balance belongs to hydropower, which is associated with the presence of huge hydropower resources, whose gross hydropower potential is 142 billion kWh, technical − 73 billion kWh, economic − 48 billion kWh. According to the last two indicators, Kyrgyzstan ranks third in the CIS, second only to the Russian Federation and Tajikistan. High availability of hydropower resources made it possible to rapidly develop the republic's energy complex, which since the beginning of the 80s has become a major producer of electricity in the Central Asian region and supplying more than 50% of generated electricity to the Central Asian Unified Energy System.
Traces of ancient developments in Kyrgyzstan indicate that mercury, lead, zinc, gold, copper, and others have long been mined here. The volume of extraction of some minerals indicates a significant level of work of those times (for example, on lead mines of Kan and Guta). Gold was mined in the past on the Turkestan ridge, in Chatkal, Uzun-Akmat, Talas, Suusamyr, Issyk-Kul and other places. Before the collapse of the USSR, Kyrgyzstan was considered the main producer of antimony, mercury and rare earth elements. Before World War II, development began at the Kadamzhai antimony field. The production of mercury was also established (Khaidarken, Chauvai, Symap and other fields); tungsten, gold, lead, zinc (Meshked, Kum-Bel, Kulzha-Bashat) and others. After the war, industrial mining of mercury, antimony, zinc, silver (Ak-Tyuz, Sumsar, Kanigut, Granitogorsk) was organized, uranium (Min-Kush, Kazhy-Sai, Shakaftar, Mailuu-Suu), and in the late 50s the mining of polymetals began. Coal was initially mined at the Syulukta and Kyzyl-Kyskoy fields (2nd half of the 19th century). The Kek-Zhan coal deposit was commissioned in 1910, and the Tash-Kemir field in 1916. In 1913, 27 coal mines operated in Kyrgyzstan, the volume of coal mined in them accounted for 70% of all coal production in Central Asia. The volume of coal mining in the largest mine reached 100,000 tons.
In the development of the economy of the republic, a special place now belongs to the mining and metallurgical complex. Its enterprises employ about 45 thousand people; their fixed assets make up 15.4%. Despite some advances in the extraction of mercury and gold, in general, the situation of this industry remains extremely difficult.
Engineering and metalworking
Engineering and metalworking in Kyrgyzstan used to be subjects of the republican specialization in the inter-republican division of labor, and the vast majority of their products went to meet the needs of the entire USSR. Their normal functioning was based on the supply of component parts from other republics, and on the supply of ferrous metallurgy products. Mechanical engineering currently has a small share in the gross industrial production of the republic. The types of products are few and the volume of production is small. Engineering enterprises of Kyrgyzstan produce simple products and consumer goods.
The light industry of Kyrgyzstan combines the three sectors that comprise the stylish, clothing, and leather-shoe-fur sectors. It accounts for 24% of the number of industrial production personnel and 30% of the gross output of the entire industry, which provides it with priority in the economic potential of Kyrgyzstan. Before the October Revolution, there were only a few private semi-handicraft enterprises in the territory of Kyrgyzstan for the primary processing of dry raw materials − wool washers, cotton ginning stations. In the years of the prewar five-year plans, light industries were created and intensively developed on the basis of local dry raw materials. From 1928 to 1940, 15 large enterprises, 3 ginneries, 6 factories for primary processing of bast crops, silk-winding, spinning and weaving, sewing, shoe factories and 2 tanneries were built and commissioned. During the Great Patriotic War, the light industry of the republic expanded due to evacuated enterprises, on the basis of which the Frunze knitting factory, sewing and shoe factories in the cities of Karakol, Naryn, Talas, Osh, and Jalal-Abad were created. During the war years, the number of enterprises increased from 16 to 29, their production capacity increased. In the post-war years, enterprises were redesigned; more advanced technological processes and new automatic equipment were introduced. Significant growth in light industry occurred in the 60s. Worsted-cloth factory (Bishkek) came into operation in 1963. A shoe factory and 2 garment factories were commissioned; tanneries and knitwear factories were reconstructed and expanded. Following them, in the 70s, the first stage of the Osh cotton production association, the Tokmok factory for primary processing of wool, the shoe firm Cholpon, the shoe factory in Kyzyl-Kiya, the Vasilievsky knit factory were put into operation.
At present, light industry still occupies a leading position in the economy of the republic, providing high employment for the population. Along with other goods, it produces consumer goods for the local market. There are great opportunities for export to near and far abroad.
The food industry of pre-revolutionary Kyrgyzstan was represented by several small artisanal enterprises: mills, oil mill and brewery for water, salt mines. By the time the Kara-Kyrgyz Autonomous Region was established, there were only 28 enterprises here. Before the war, the food industry of the republic grew significantly. New industries appeared: meat, dairy (14 dairy and cheese factories), sugar, wine, bakery and others.
Food industry is one of the priority industries of the republic. Food industry sectors are mainly based on the processing of local raw materials for domestic consumption. In the structure of gross industrial output, the food industry accounts for about 20% and more than 10% in the volume of exports (sugar, fermented tobacco, alcohol).
The share of the forestry, woodworking and pulp and paper industries of the republic in 2000 amounted to: 1.0% in the number of employees; production output − 0.6%; at the cost of fixed assets − 0.7%. Despite this, the industry is of great importance, as provides the population with basic necessities made of wood, widely used in everyday life.
The Kyrgyz people have been valued since ancient times. It was processed; everyday items were made from it, convenient for use in the conditions of nomadic life. During the years of Soviet power, the forest woodworking and pulp and paper industries, along with other industries, became state property. Specialized enterprises were created, the largest of which were built in the 60s.
In the industry there are: factories of reinforced concrete structures and products, expanded clay and gravel plants, gravel sorting, crushing and screening combines of building materials, brick, cement, glass and a number of other factories and plants. The range of products is very diverse: cement, asbestos-cement sheets, clinker, expanded clay, asbestos-cement pipes, building lime, wall materials (bricks), prefabricated iron concrete structures and products, ceramic tiles, granite, marble, shell rock, porous fillers, heat-insulating products based on basalt composite materials, window glass, and many others. Over 2,000 enterprises of industrial construction materials produced goods in the amount of 1203.2 million soms. Large enterprises of the industry are located in the Chui and Osh regions. The republic’s need for basic building materials: cement, slate, lime, wall materials and other types is ensured by its own production. In terms of the volume of production of building materials, Chui region takes the first place in Kyrgyzstan. At the same time, construction materials occupy the third place in the structure of the region’s export (5.2 million dollars). Beats the weight of products of the building materials industry in the total industrial production of the republic is about 3%. The volumes of production of cement, asbestos-cement products and wall materials are mainly determined by the demand of the domestic market and export of products to neighboring countries.
A private printing house appeared on the territory of Kyrgyzstan in 1914 under the name "Progress", where the "Bishkek Bulletin", local government orders, reports on military events, and advertisements were printed in Russian. In 1918, the printing house, with a number of 22 employees, was transferred to the local authority under the name "Serp and Molot". The printing house began to print the Bishkek Bulletin and various forms. Fonts were brought from Tashkent and Verny (Almaty) in Arabic and Latin, which were collected manually. To create the foundations of the printing industry in Kyrgyzstan, experts from other nearby cities were invited. The printing house was completely dominated by manual labor, so they barely coped with the work.
In the Kyrgyz Republic, the printing industry began to be fully developed only after the Great October Socialist Revolution.
So, I tried to briefly talk about the country's industry. I hope this information will be useful to you if you want to travel in Kyrgyzstan.
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